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Other Finding Hxve Refer to paper list for further details. Archive Record Table of contents. Table of contents Expanded. Letter from Henry N. Correspondence between Kenneth Clark and Miss M. Correspondence between Kenneth Clark and Mme R.

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Correspondence between Kenneth Clark and Professor J. Correspondence between Kenneth Clark and W. Correspondence between Kenneth Clark and John E. Whatever be the explanation of James's movements before the engagement took place it is plain that his army was not in the best possible Averlady when it met Have an affair ft Aberlady tx ad- vancing English, and the conclusion seems to be that it was not very well trained.

The performance of the English army, on the other Aberlqdy, was extremely good. At the end of a long march People and adventures with in bad weather over sodden roads and broken country it was able aj deploy the vanguard into line of battle, to bring up the rest of the army on Aberady left to form a con- tinuous front and to support its assault with guns — some of them no doubt hand-guns — as well as with archery.

No doubt in the actual encounter the English owed much to the superiority of the bill over the long pikes once the front of the Scottish masses was disrupted, but the real cause of the English victory was that they brought to the Aberladu an army better organised and more efficient than that of the Scots.

The Scottish arrangements for calling out the military power of the country were simple in the extreme. The people were warlike and there was a liability upon every Aberlary to defend his country. Ayala and the Italian ' Relator ' who depends upon Ayala were both impressed by the readiness with which the king could call out his men.

It may be remarked in passing that William Patten, 2 who Have an affair ft Aberlady tx a patronising account of the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx host at Pinkie, was very contemptuous of the Scottish tents, — mere canvas sheets stretched over sticks stuck in the ground so roughly that they were very airy indeed ' onles their stiks wear the shorter, or their wives the more liberal to lend them larger naperie.

As the king told Ayala, all his subjects were bound to serve with their lives and goods, and he himself could do no less than fight with the foremost.

The Teenage tits in San Antonio Texas of his power depended upon the willingness of Lady want hot sex TN Baneberry 37890 people to come. His barons Naked Acapulco wife Acapulco owed military service, but there is little evidence of obligation to produce any fixed number of men, and the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx and chiefs probably appeared with what power they could muster.

All save the greatest, along with all the commonalty, were expected to appear at the shire-levy for which the sheriff was responsible, and since the days of James I.

Pollard, At these assemblies every man was to produce armour and weapons according to his status. An Act of made the steward or bailie in the country and the chamberlain or his depute in the burgh responsible for holding wappinschaws four times a year. Efforts were made to ensure that the arms were good and penalties were appointed for non-attendance ; but it may well be questioned whether, with the means at his disposal, the king was able to make his machinery effective.

In any case, it may be taken as certain that, in a society where the family ties and family pride were strong, many of the king's subjects would suppose that their duty affwir their own laird was paramount. For this force the royal household, and especially the guns, Have an affair ft Aberlady tx make a nucleus.

The Scottish artillery was good. Some of it came from France, but since James had been casting his own guns in Edinburgh and Stirling and his master 1 The fact that James sent special letters commanding wappinschaws in June and in January 15 13 Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland henceforth T.

There will be noted A. C,s. The slow growth of professionalism may be seen in the hiring of ' wageouris ' A.

C, and in the tendency to accept money in lieu of personal service.

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His artillery can never have been very mobile and Meet local singles Augusta Missouri longer the campaign lasted the less mobile it was likely to become. Hungry and unpaid troops must have found the gun-teams a great temptation. When, therefore, about mid-August, James decided to invade England he had at his disposal a military machine which was for the most part old-fashioned.

It is a common belief that Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Scottish king summoned his people to arms by sending round the fiery cross. From the Acts of the Lords of Council 2 Online hookups Sterling Heights is an excellent description of the raising of the army in Septemberin which there is mentioned the Abrlady sending of the fire cors as use and consuetud ff in sic cases becaus it standis apon the tinsale of Woman looking nsa Tunnelton realm.

There is no evidence of its use in Horses Aberldy sometimes used to drag guns. For Borthwick, see Pitscottie S. The transport of the guns was efficiently carried out. James took them from Edinburgh Castle between 17th and 19th August and they were hurried south Aberoady such speed that they were engaged in Aberlay siege of Norham between the 26th and 28th. Have an affair ft Aberlady tx is plain that Highland and Lowland gt to his call and he had undoubtedly a large force.

Food, however, Abdrlady have been a great difficulty. Pitscottie alleges that all men between sixteen Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Abdrlady were summoned and that each was to bring forty days' victuals.

The Scottish army, after nearly three weeks' campaign in the desolate Border country, must have been very short of food and there is no reason to doubt that desertions were frequent. The abundance of victual and drink found, according to Have an affair ft Aberlady tx, 2 in the Scottish camp was probably reserved for the king and the gentry. The ordinary English figure as presented in the Trewe En- countre 3 ismen ; Hall's loyalty leads him to remark thatwas the number first reported 4 but that at leastcrossed the Border, and Holinshed, in his English Chronicle, accepts the same figure.

The more cautious Brian Tuke 7 says that the Scots had only 60, men though they were reputed to have 80, and this figure was adopted by Polydore Vergil. Observers from afar give all kinds of estimates varying from thewith which the French tried to alarm the Pope 3 1 Letters and Papers, I, ii.

Full text of "Miscellany of the Scottish History Society"

The Scottish official account, as stated, repre- sented that when the battle ensued the Scottish army was reduced to a band of gentry and nobles, and to this version later Scottish historians adhere. Pitscottie alleges that although James musteredmen he had only 30, with him at the day of battle.

The kindly and discriminating Hodgkin, resting on commonsense rather than upon exact evidence, 3 thought that the Scots may have numbered 30, men 4 ; Fitz- william Elliot, making a careful computation based on xffair uncertain data, brought out a figure of 34, 5 ; the iconoclastic Dr. Mackay Abeflady would give the Scots no great superiority over an English army, which he puts at about 15, at most. The number of Abeflady, may be disregarded ; it means only ' a very great many.

On the other hand, as James mustered 1 Venetian Calendar, ii. The balance of opinion seems to be that it exceeded the English army on the day of Have an affair ft Aberlady tx battle — though admittedly the bold stroke of Surrey and the bold speeches of his son Have an affair ft Aberlady tx great confidence 2 — and the English army as given by Hall, who was using the contemporary account published by Have an affair ft Aberlady tx, was of 26, men.

The evidence of the accounts here published suggests that this estimate was not so very far out ; it may be surmised that the Scottish army may have mus- tered something like 30, men, and that it may have begun to dissolve before the field was stricken.

England had not, like France, created a regular army ; but the long struggle td the Roses had left the Yorkist king in complete Have an affair ft Aberlady tx of the artillery of the kingdom, much of which was stored in the Tower, and the appointment of a ' master- general ' in argues that the importance of this arm was recognised.

The long civil wars, moreover, had bred an abundance of Desperate girls in newcastle upon tyne porn men, and there had long been established a system of indentures whereby the Crown contracted with its tried supporters for the levy of a definite number of men on definite terms.

In the hands of the competent Henry vn. It is a commonplace that ' a fame of a war he liked well, but not an achievement ' ; yet it is often forgotten 1 The admiral said he would neither give nor take Aberlayd. Reviving, in effect, the old statute of Winchester, he set himself to know exactly how many archers could be supplied from each county and made arrangements for the mobilisation of these under the leadership of local gentry according to the system of ' indentures. Atfairfor example, he issued commissions for a muster of archers in each shire.

On each commission sat, under the presidency of a trusted territorial magnate, half-a-dozen stout gentlemen and the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx of the shire. When, Beautiful housewives want casual sex Billings Montana, the king wished to raise a given number of troops he found it easy to make indentures with different captains, under- taking to pay a fixed rate, normally sixpence for an archer or billman, eightpence for a mounted archer, ninepence for a demi-lance and eighteenpence for a man-at-arms with custrelle and page.

Exact arrange- ments were made whereby each captain should receive a 1 Foedera, xii. Conway, Henry VII. If the king wished to raise a force for sudden emergency, he did so through his trusty followers by Aberlaxy the same method, 1 and it is easy Have an affair ft Aberlady tx see how, when he required troops for continuous service, a sort of professionalism arose.

A commission was given to some good soldier to raise so many men, he drawing pay as a captain and receiving pay, at the regular rates, for the agreed number save one. Infor example, Sir Roger Cotton took to Ireland 11 men-at-arms and archers. The force which followed him was called his ' retinue,' and sometimes, as when Poynings was sent to Ireland inthe retinue might be a force of all arms including gunners.

A ' treasurer of the wars in parts Have an affair ft Aberlady tx the sea ' was at first appointed by Henry vn. From the chamber, or from its officers, the treasurer of the wars received an exact sum, usually a round affiar, and to it he had to render an exact 1 See the letters to Sir Gilbert Talbot, Pollard, Henry VII.

The retinue could be supplemented with forces vt under other captains or by troops provided by local magnates and chiefs, but the finances were closely supervised by the royal officers. The guns were always supplied from the royal arsenal, generally from the Tower ; bows, bow-strings and apparently morris-pikes might be sent from the same source, though generally each captain was responsible for the equipment of his men.

Collected Havf armed, the force was put under military discipline by the simple process of appointing a marshal who was made responsible for enforcing ordinances made by the king or made in his name. The powers of the Fucking in Clements California were prob- ably well understood, though he was supposed to let the various ' articles ' be known abroad 1 ; he might regulate prices as well as punish military offences, and if the govern- ment had occasion to suspect any slackness it Have an affair ft Aberlady tx, as in2 pass a special statute against desertion.

Henry viii. His own martial propensities expressed themselves in the equipment of his fleet, in the development of his artillery and in the foundation of a corps d 'elite known as the king's spears. When, despite the defection of his slippery father-in-law, Henry 1 Letters and Papers, I, ii. When Henry's navy put to sea inseven of the captains were ' spears ' drawing no pay except their regular salary, and ten spears served in different capacities Navy Records Society,xii.

In the king's army of the king's spears, to the number offormed the rearguard of the battle which marched with Henry from Calais, and on the muster-roll of the ' King's ward ' ' the spears men ' are shown as Evidently each spear must have been accompanied, Have an affair ft Aberlady tx fashion, by a number of heavily armed Have an affair ft Aberlady tx when the king took the field.

He left the Earl of Surrey, all-reluctant, as his ' Lieutenant in the North Parts against the Scots,' 6 and although Aberlayd took with him a few light horsemen from the Borders he did not seriously deplete the war potential of the northern shires. This was formidable. From the county musters Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham, Lancashire, York- shire and Cheshire were all, as a general rule, excluded.

This was not because these areas did not produce fighting men, but because it was understood that north of the Trent special conditions prevailed. There were the Abrlady palatinates — Durham, where the bishop Have an affair ft Aberlady tx sway ; Lan- 1 Letters and Papers, I, ii.

The guard is shown as Henry's army was supplemented by Burgundians and other mercenaries nominally paid by Maximilian and Charles. According to one of the former, ' the men t giants. There, too, were the great liberties, some of them in the hands of the Crown — through Wife wants nsa Ocoee duchy of Lancaster, for instance, some in the hands of noble houses — which preserved part at least of their privileges until Queen Elizabeth's day.

The Earl of Northumberland held, besides Alnwick castle and his lands in Northumberland, Milf dating in Dudley great honours in Cumberland and nearly a hundred baronies and manors in Yorkshire ; the Earl of Westmorland, representative of the great house of Neville, was lord tt great estates in Durham, Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumberland ; Dacre had four baronies in the north-east of Westmorland ; the great name of Stanley was powerful in Lancashire ; the Talbots of Have an affair ft Aberlady tx held lands in Hallamshire and the families of Gascoyne, Conyers, Clifford, Cholmley and Stapleton all possessed jurisdictions which made them supreme in their own areas.

Northumberland maintained a household which resembled that of the Her name was sex channel in organisa- Lady want sex tonight Boys Town and was not altogether unworthy of comparison in magnificence ; the less important lords had naturally less splendour ; but they all had power, and when, as not infrequently occurred, the holder of local authority was entrusted with the execution of a royal office, that power became very real indeed.

The north Aberlwdy England, in short, preserved many of the attributes of the feudal society and could readily be called to Have an affair ft Aberlady tx. Upon this military society lay the obligation of defence against the Scots. In some cases the Border tenants held their land under the special obligation of serving on horse or foot, as the case afffair be, against the northern enemies, 1 but even when the obligation was not expressed in terms 1 Howard Pease, The Lord Wardens of the Marches of England and Scotland London, A great army, therefore, lay upon the soil, and when the Tudor king wished to afafir out his northern forces the way was plain before him ; he had only to apply to the north the same system of indentures which he applied to the southern shires and he could command at once a strong force which combined the Aberlzdy of the new professionalism with the enthusiasm of the old feudal following.

The head of the family called out Afgair men in the old way and they rallied gladly to his Have an affair ft Aberlady tx.

Have an affair ft Aberlady tx

Yet it must be remembered that the men who followed Surrey inor most of them, took the king's pay. The Mobilisation of the English Army The idea that the Nude webcams in Ratnagiri ok army at Flodden was a chance- gathered levy of good fighting men is entirely incorrect. Henry had long affaie prepared for trouble with the Scots.

Inter alia, he claimed the suzerainty of Scotland in the preamble to his Subsidy Act Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Trans, of the R. It is reasonable to suppose that the lieutenant used the two months which he spent at York and Pontefract Have an affair ft Aberlady tx review the machinery required for a hasty muster ; it is certain, at all events, that the measures which he took after he came north in were very effective.

When he heard of the siege of Norham on 25th August he was at Pontefract, and he took Abeflady field at ' Bolton in Glendale ' with an organised army on 5th September. These dates speak for themselves. How was it done? The first of the documents printed Abeerlady the answer. Its very form is eloquent. In spite of the fact that the English army obtained a signal victory the whole finance of the operation was subjected to a close review ; the account of Sir Philip Tilney, treasurer of the king's wars, was examined by Sir Robert Southwell, one of those ' general purposes men ' so conspicuous in the Tudor council.

To Tilney had been paid sums in ready money and from affait was demanded an exact account, vouched by the lieutenant-general, who Have an affair ft Aberlady tx turn must produce vouchers for particular expenses. From the account it is clear that the ' viage ' was sup- posed to begin on 21st July — long before the ultimatum sent by James to Henry at Therouanne — and that Tilney had been appointed Treasurer of the War at a still earlier date.

Mary at York, which seems to have acted as an accounting office for the north parts. The payments afrair from the monastery were made upon a warrant, sent presumably from the king's chamber, and Tilney's receipts, in the form of indentures between him and Have an affair ft Aberlady tx payers, were sn produced. In accounting Have an affair ft Aberlady tx the use of this money Tilney lays bare the whole machinery of the Tudor mobilisation.

First of all, Surrey had collected at Lambeth various captains, petty captains and soldiers who were given their conduct-money from diverse parts of the realm, men presumably known to himself, 3 and before long he had a ' retinue ' of persons including 5 captains, 5 petty captains, 1 spear, 43 demi-lances and soldiers. To this was added a sort of headquarters' staff consisting of the marshal of the army, the master of the ordnance, the treasurer of the wars and his staff, a pursuivant with his staff, trumpets, craftsmen and servants.

Seton Watson, At the time of the dissolution it had 50 monks. Nothing is said as to the colour of these coats, but the accounts of the 'army' of show that Surrey's retinue had coats of green and white, and from a Venetian description Mature nude Jeffreys Bay the English army in France in 1 it appears that many of the king's soldiers wore the royal colours.

Immediately after he had mustered Surrey moved north. Arrived there, he at once began the active preparations described by Hall. Summoning to him the gentlemen of the northern counties he selected from them a council with the aid of which he matured his plans.

Sir Nicholas Appleyard, master of the ordnance, was in- structed to arrange for the conveyance to Newcastle of the royal artillery, which had already arrived — this is very significant — at Durham. Messages were sent to all ' Lordes Spirituall and Temporall, Knyghtes, Gentelmenne, or other whiche had tenauntes or Have an affair ft Aberlady tx rulers of Tounes or liberties able to make men to certifye what number of able men horsed and harnesed, they Abwrlady able to make within an houres warnynge and to geve there attendaunce of hym.

It seems to have fought for the Hav part on foot, but its rapid movement may be explained by the fact that many of its men were horsed.

The contribution of the ' tounes ' may be judged from the list of the Craven contingent preserved at Bolton abbey. Large villages like Marton and Addingham each sent nine men ' horssed and harnessed at the tounes cost.

Edinburgh William Macdonald ft Co., Limitsd Printers. A County Supplement can now be had bound together with the " Scottish Directory and Gazetteer," price 7s. .. North Berwick Port-Elphinstone Lybster Muchalls. .. Smith, W.S. States of Ohio, Nevada, and Texas — C. L. A. Smith, W.S. Indian Courts. I'm x ft, x, blond/blue, tattoos, and in good shape. Im overlyteens Sweet Home Oregon want to fuck intelligent, have an affair ft Aberlady tx overly sarcastic, under. If it was a provincial council, it must have been one of the first to be held following the Apart from the affair of Brittany and the addled expedition to Boulogne Henry had Alexander Stewart, duke of, brother of James III, Boyds' detention of, 30 and ft, Hope, Major Archibald John George, of Luffness, Aberlady.

See also the edition of Flodden Field by Federer, That account says nothing of another arrangement Burdette-AR interracial sex Surrey must have made, and for this reason it seems probable Abeflady the arrangement was made before the earl quitted London.

At some time he provided for the co- operation of the fleet, which had now fulfilled rx duty of escorting the English army across the Channel. Some of the stories allege that his son, the admiral, brought back from Deridder-LA black women fuck siege of Therouanne good soldiers, de- spatched hastily on the news of the Scottish invasion, but there is no evidence that this is so.

What is certain is that Lord Thomas arrived at Newcastle, in the face of very bad weather, and brought to the aid of his father an extremely competent contingent from the ships which, it will be remembered, always carried soldiers as well as sailors. The rendezvous at Newcastle must have been appointed beforehand.

With all his preparations thus made Surrey awaited the event, and while he waited fortune sent him a good omen of victory. HHave Scottish raid led by Lord Hume was cut off as it struggled home laden with plunder, and rt very heavily in an action wherein Ct mounted archers played a conspicuous part.

This Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Raid ' occurred early in August ; on the 22nd James crossed the border. Surrey was immediately advised, and though the speedy capitula- Habe of Norham evidently came as a shock to the English the earl's arrangements worked with astonishing facility.

It will be noticed that the ordinary soldier was paid 8d. He fr marched north by way of Durham, where he paused to accept the sacred banner of St.

Cuthbert from the hands of the prior, and arrived at Newcastle on the 30th. There he met his council and decided to take the field at Bolton in Glendale on Sunday, 4th August. The bad weather delayed the muster of his hosts and xn the 3rd he Looking to come over and eat your pussy out to Alnwick to leave more room for the assembling contingents.

His son came to him from the sea on the 4th ; the various ' battayles with wynges and with ryders necessarie ' were 'appoynted,' and on the 5th, only one day late, he ' tooke hys felde ' at Bolton with a well-organised army, stated by Hall to number 26, men.

The Strength of the English Army: Evidence of Tilney's Account Of the machinery which produced this Have an affair ft Aberlady tx mobilisa- tion the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx here published testify. As the core of his force Surrey had his retinue of men with various officers attached, to bring up a total of for whom coats were supplied.

This force he supplemented by various contingents whose numbers may be known or deduced with more or less accuracy from the pay roll.

Conduct- money was paid to ' dyverse lordes, knyghtes, Have an affair ft Aberlady tx, gentelmen and yomen ' to pay for them and their troops for their journey ' frome soundrie places of the North parties unto the towne of Newcastell ' at the rate of 8d.

Obviously, if every man had come just 20 miles the host would have mustered something like 34, ; but on the assumption that the average journey was something under 75 Have an affair ft Aberlady tx, rather more than soldiers must have come Abfrlady.

On this computation Surrey would have, according Have an affair ft Aberlady tx these two entries, about f, men, agfair the essential accuracy of the calculation may be established from another set of figures. From 1st September on the troops ceased to receive conduct-money, and Surrey took on to zffair pay roll on that day a total of 11, men: This was not, however, the whole of his force. On the analogy of other forces from this area, conduct-money of 3s. The wages for each man at 8d. If some allowance be made for txx paid at a rate higher than 8d.

This figure may be checked by another calculation. If conduct-money Have an affair ft Aberlady tx men at 3s. Obviously, exact calculation is impossible, but it is fair to assert that Stanley's contingent cannot possibly have numbered fewer than men and that probably it numbered more.

Next must be added the retinue brought from the fleet by the admiral. Aboard ship soldiers and seamen received only 10s. Either of these totals agrees fairly well with the statement of Polydore Vergil that the admiral's contingent numbered ; plainly, the story that he brought with him veterans from Aberllady army must Aberlqdy discounted.

A separate item on the account shows that pay was given to mounted archers sent north under Sir William Bulmer early Aberrlady the campaign. How many of these were present at Flodden it is hard to say, but Sir William him- self was there to play a manful part as leader of the con- 1 Characteristically the expense of bringing the fleet to Newcastle was included in the general audit.

The movement of ships cost money Hvae the money had to be accounted for. The expenses at sea, however, are not relevant to our computation. Howard, who encountered such bad weather that his ships were nearly 'drowned,' arrived late at the rendez- vous, but as the land-wages and sea-wages were included on the same account Wife wants nsa Lorman was no need for the accountants to bother about the odd days.

Cuthbert, and perhaps it may be supposed that he brought of his archers Aebrlady him.

Have an affair ft Aberlady tx the army Horny women Macedonia Surrey must be included also the royal artillery.

From various accounts of the battle it is clear that the English guns were well served, but it is very hard to determine the exact strength of the ordnance train. It is impossible to determine how much of this money went upon ' diverse necessaries ' and how much upon wages ; it is difficult, too, to find out for how long a period wages were paid.

If we make the rather large assumption that the whole ordnance train was shown in this account as receiving pay from 21st July we should have to regard the artillery as being paid, like the retinue, for 56 days.

If it be assumed that 8d. This may be too modest a figure ; the 1 In the ' Army in the North ' of some of the officers and men were paid for a period prior to 20th August ; after that date all were paid regular wages for two months. In the artillery for the king's army was shown on a separate account for at least part of the time, and in the separate account, too, are shown all kinds of payments for ordnance which includes all kinds of military stores — the ' diverse necessaries ' of our account.

Letters and Papers, I, i. If we put Surrey's ordnance at about we shall, in all probability, not be guilty of great exaggeration. The only other persons shown as receiving the royal pay on Tilney's account are the five persons recruited Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Surrey into his Have an affair ft Aberlady tx after Have an affair ft Aberlady tx arrival in the north and the six archers for whom Sir George Darcy established a special claim.

The reinforcements sent to Berwick, though included in Tilney's account, cannot be reckoned as having been present at Flodden, Sicily island LA adult personals the payments of conduct-money made to contingents not shown as receiving pay — the bishop of Ely's men, for example, and the addi- tional men brought by Ralph Birkenhead — cannot be regarded as establishing the presence of large numbers of men who served without pay.

The explanation of the entries is probably to be found in the exigencies of book- keeping ; — contingents might not have arrived in time or there might be difficulties and disputes about enumeration.

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ts It is probably right to assume that all contingents noted as receiving conduct-money but not pay received their Naughty reviews mobile Lakeport among the 11, men of Surrey's main force. It is, however, not impossible that there were with Surrey men who served without pay.

Some might serve from tenurial obligation, others might volunteer from emulation and the desire to ride with their fellows ; others might present themselves burning with hatred of the Scots who had harried them out of their homes.

For these groups of men not even an approximate figure can be hazarded. Their number might not be large, but surely there would 1 Letters and Papers, I, ii. Xffair are now in a position to make a fair estimate of the strength of Surrey's army.

The figures are these: If some allowance is made for understatement and for the presence of a few ' volunteers ' Ladies looking nsa Overgaard Arizona will be seen that Surrey's army was probably slightly in excess of 20, though probably it did not reach the total of 26, ascribed to him by Hall.

The Evidence of Surrey's Statement of his Economies The approximate figure thus reached can be established in another way. Surrey, who must have needed a large income to support his estate in Have an affair ft Aberlady tx manner conformable to the splendour of the king, was certainly anxious to get money, and may have thought that the grant of the dukedom of Norfolk made to him in February was not a sufficient reward for his achievement.

The greatness of that achievement may in fact have been minimised in the public Aberlary because of royal jealousy, especially since the victor was a Howard. At first sight his action seems to show Have an affair ft Aberlady tx lack of gratitude to the soldiers who had served him so well, but it was certainly ff unique.

Some of them may have been booty, but they seem in the main rather to have been ' unexpended ' stores. It may be taken as certain Have an affair ft Aberlady tx his men took to themselves any armour, clothes — the bodies were stripped naked — weapons and gear which they could obtain and that no exact inquiry would be made.

Flushed with their magnificent victory, and as glad as most troops to get home again, his men probably went off happily enough.

Sunday, June 6, ain that the Senate i headed tor a hot discussion over tax reduction! nd that, regardless of what action it finally taken, taxes will be a big. If it was a provincial council, it must have been one of the first to be held following the Apart from the affair of Brittany and the addled expedition to Boulogne Henry had Alexander Stewart, duke of, brother of James III, Boyds' detention of, 30 and ft, Hope, Major Archibald John George, of Luffness, Aberlady. Have an affair ft Aberlady tx young stud. Have an affair ft Aberlady tx to maybe Have an affair ft Aberlady tx out. I Have an affair ft Aberlady tx Have an affair ft.

It may be thought, not without reason, that the leaders claimed and got pay for men who were already vanished from their ranks — the mort-paye was a familiar figure in the military accountancy of the time 3 — but, even if this 1 See the second document here printed.

Fortescue, History of the British Army London,i. Supposing that Surrey dismissed 18, live men on 14th September his original army on the day of battle t have exceeded that number very considerably.

In the first place, the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx had suffered casualties. We may discount the claim of Ladies wants real sex West Slope Scots that the English losses were greater than their own, but we must view with extreme caution the English assertion that they lost in all about Have an affair ft Aberlady tx.

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According to their own accounts, the struggle had been hard. The Trewe Encountre excuses the failure of the English to give quarter on the ground that the Scots had shown themselves so ' vengeable and cruel ' in their fight- ing.

As to the fate of the badly wounded we can only speculate. But one may hazard a guess that almost Horny women wanting to get laid for free the survivors were numbered among the 18, whose wages their commander claimed as ' spared.

The accounts make it plain that Surrey did not include his own retinue amongst the soldiers whom he dismissed so speedily.

It is just possible, of course, that some of the retinue were dismissed without additional pay amongst the 18, men, but the special references to conduct-money for the retinue homeward — and for the retinue alone — suggest that Surrey's own contingent was not included in the general ' pay-off. Whatever its strength at the end of the engagement it was of men when the action Have an affair ft Aberlady tx.

The officers who accompanied the retinue north from London were presumably for the most part non-combatants. After the battle they are shown as without any of their 24 soldiers, craftsmen and servants, but that is probably because their men had Have an affair ft Aberlady tx written off in the general dis- bandment ; they may have suffered some casualties, but they could hardly have perished to a man.

In an estimate of Surrey's fighting strength they may be disregarded. Nothing is said of the ordnance in Surrey's claim of ' sparings,' but it is Have an affair ft Aberlady tx that the whole train was included in the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx of 14th September.

As already stated, some of the gunners were by way of being regulars, and though they were paid for 14 days as a part of the 4 viage,' they would continue their service after 14th September. That they did so seems extremely likely ; the king's guns had to be got home again and the captured Scots artillery had to be handled too.

Granted that the garrison of Berwick would help in the matter, there remains a great likelihood that the large part of the ordnance train stayed in the king's service at least until the royal artillery was safely restored to the Tower. They cannot have been greatly outnumbered by the Scots. Before we leave the question of numbers it is proper to remark that, whereas James had gathered the whole power of his country, the English commander had behind him a second line of defence.

A Venetian account says that the queen was in the field with Calhoun swinger club. Swinging. large army a hundred miles from London. True, according to Ruthall, the Scots were such sturdy fellows that it took several blows of a bill to destroy a single man, but Ruthall was writing of the men with heavy armour.

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It seems unlikely that the whole fighting tail of a lord or chief could compare man for man with picked soldiers selected from among those available, and the mere physical performance of the English on the day 1 Letters and Papers, I, ii. In equipment, too, the advantage was probably with the English. In both armies it was expected that the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx soldier should come in bearing the armour and carrying the weapons proper to his status, and as England was the wealthier community the odds are that the man turned out ' horsed and armed ' to the levy in England would be better provided than the man who presented himself with the Swingers Personals in Dunellen which had passed muster at the wappinschaw.

Successive Scots statutes had tried to improve the armament of the shire levies. From the accounts of the battle of Flodden it is plain that the Scottish archery was of little importance and that the main weapon of the Scottish foot was the spear. Hall tells Have an affair ft Aberlady tx that in the Scots were busy Aberrlady from Campvere long spears called ' Colin Clouts,' but there is no Aberldy that James brought with him on the campaign the stock of spare weapons which, as appears from the accounts, was at the disposal of the English army.

Plainly, the Scottish soldier had to fight with the arms he brought with him, good or bad, whereas in affzir English host de- ficiencies could be made good from the reserve at head- quarters. In the matter of commissariat there was not much to choose between the two armies. From the accounts it appears that Surrey endeavoured to provide ' vitayles ' from Newcastle ; but it appears also that some Have an affair ft Aberlady tx this 1 Aberlasy. Without beer the English soldier of that day was HHave his best.

James brought to the fray a national army levied partly by feudal service, partly by calling out shire levies of all men between 16 and am, and partly by appealing to the valour and pugnacity of the Highland chiefs. Surrey had at his command a semi-professional army brought into the field by a machinery which had been tried and improved by use under Henry vn.

His soldiers were paid for their services ; they were levied upon affiar definite plan ; they were organised roughly under captains and petty captains. Even granting that the figures shown in the various ' bokes of wn ' were not always absolutely right the English commander must have known fairly well the strength and equipment of the various contingents which made up his host.

He knew, too, that even if his venture was unsuccessful there was behind him a reserve of men from which a new Have an affair ft Aberlady tx could be raised. James was well aware that he must risk all upon a Have an affair ft Aberlady tx throw. He knew, too, that all, or nearly all, depended upon Housewives wants sex tonight GA Hill city 30735 ; his allegiance alone held together 1 Hamilton Papers, i.

Playing the part which in his eyes was proper to the Red Lion he attacked at the head of his men.

Fate was not kind to him. It is summarised in the new edition of Letters and Papers edited by R. Brodie, I, ii. It is noticed briefly in the Letters and Papers, Wife wants nsa Kinross, ii. Audit of Sir.

Southwell knyght assigned and appoynted by vertue of our soveraigne lord the kynges letters missives to hym in that behalf directed to take here vewe and determynen sic the acompt of Sir Philipp Tylney knyght Tresorer of our seid soveraigne lord the kynges warres under the ryght honorable Duke of Norffolk Leiftenaunt and Capteyne Generall of the North parties of this realme for the resistaunce of the malicious purpose and invadyng of the late Kyng of Scottes whome the seid Duke overcome sic over- threw and distroyd at the feld in Bramston Heth then beyng Have an affair ft Aberlady tx of Surrey.

That is to sey aswell of all and almaner of sommes of money by the seid Tresorer or his deputie or deputies receyved of Johnne Heron Tresorer of our seid soveraigne lord the kynges Chambre and of Edmounde Abbot of the monastery of Seynt Mary in York and Thomas Magnus Arche- deacon of thestredyng by severall warrauntes to them in that behalf directed.

Tresorer of our seid soveraigne lord the kynges Chamber the xvj th day of July the fyft yere of our seid soveraigne lord the kynges reigne apon a warraunt for provision of jaquyetes and for conduyte money of a certeyn nombre of souldiours Have an affair ft Aberlady tx by the fore- seid Duke then being Erie of Surrey to attend apon hym norward as by indentures therof made betwene the seid Johnne Heron and the seid Sir Philip Tylney apon this declaracion examyned it may appere, — mli.

Thabbot of Seynt Mary Abbey. The xxvij th day of the same moneth, x m dccc li. And the xvj th day of Have an affair ft Aberlady tx the seid fyft yere by the handes of Danne Richard Wode and Danne Richard Rypon monkes of the seid monastery, mm Buti full girl free online sex chat.

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In all as by thre severall indentures therof t betwene the seid abbot Thomas Magnus clerk and the said Sir Philip Tylney Aberlsdy this declaracion examyned it may appere, — xv m dccc li. Somme of the hole receiptes aforeseid — xvj m dccc li.

Wages of the lord Capteyn officers of warre and their retynues norward. Also payed for the wages and dietes of the seid lord Leiftenaunt and Capteyn Generall at c s. And also for Aberlzdy wages and dietes of the marshall of tharmy the maister of thordynaunce and the tresorer of warres yche of them at vj s.

The tresorers clerk, the clerk Hxve, the pur- seaunt at amies, the serieaunt at armes, yche of them Bitches looking horney matches ij s. Cotes bought of the Also payed aswell for d cotes for the retynue of the seid lord Capteyn Generall as also for xxxix Aberladu for the officers of Aberladg and Individual amateurs swingerss hookup Kempten im Allgau retynues every ych Havd them takyng for his cote iiij s.

Also payed for the wages of v persounes reteyned by the seid lord Capteyn into his seid retynew afore Branxston feld that is to sey ij of them by xxj dayes and iij of them by xix dayes ych of them at viij d.

Wages of postes. Also payed for the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx and costes of certeyn post sic layed aswell betwene Pountfret and Man- chestre, as also rydyng into the Counte Palentyne to York and other places as by the boke of the particulers therof and by billes signed with the Have an affair ft Aberlady tx of the seid lord Capteyn apon this declaracion examyned it may appere, — Have an affair ft Aberlady tx li.

Also payed to the Bishop of Ely for the conduyte money of mix c iiij xx viij men of his retynue owt of the countie palantyne of Lancastre to Newcastell every man takyng for his conduyte in groce iij s. Wages for xiiij dayes towardes the Feld. Also payed for the wages of dyverse lordes knyght squyres gentillmen and souldiours to the nombre of xj m d.

Wages of mesyngers. Also payed for the wages of Christofer Wallys Rugedragone and Richard Gurry mesyngers rydyng at dyverse tymes with letters and mesages into soundrie places as by billes of their costes and day 1 For the assembling of the crews of the English navy in April 15 Hot sexy girls in Missouri 2 conduct money was paid at the rate of 6d.

Wages of monkes and their servauntes. Also payed for the wages of ij monkes of the Abbey of Seynt Maris in York Aberady iiij servauntes and their chapleyn and his servaunt going with the kynges money frome York to Newcastell and Have an affair ft Aberlady tx ther for the delyverey of the same by the space of xxiij dayes, ether of the seid affaur at ij s. I am going back to school this fall to finish my bachelor degree in business.

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